|Perceived Masculine and Feminine Attributes Examined as a Function of Individuals' Sex and Level in the Organizational Power Hierarchy: A Test of Four Theoretical Perspectives
|| Ellen A. Fagenson
||Predictions derived from four theoretical formulations, the gender-centered, organization structure, gender-organization, and gender-organization-system perspectives, were tested. Men and women in upper and lower level jobs in a large corporation completed the Masculine and Feminine scales of the Personal Attributes Questionnaire. In support of the organization structure perspective, perceptions of masculine attributes were found to be related to individuals' level in the organizational power hierarchy: upper level men and women reported possessing more masculine characteristics than did individuals at the lower levels. In support of the gender-centered perspective, perceptions of feminine attributes were found to be related to individuals' gender: Women reported being more feminine than men. The gender-organization and gender-organization-system perspectives were not supported. Explanations for these results as well as the implications of these findings are discussed.
||Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 75(2)
||femininity, human sex differences, management personnel, masculinity, occupational status, attribution, personnel, power