On the perceived effectiveness of transformational–transactional leadership: The role of encouraged strategies and followers' regulatory focus
Author(s): Melvyn R. W. Hamstra, Nico W. Van Yperen, Barbara Wisse, Kai Sassenberg
Abstract: The present research sought to examine when and why transformational and transactional leadership are perceived by followers to be effective. A series of five studies revealed that perceived effectiveness of transformational and transactional leadership is influenced by the fit between leadership style-driven encouraged strategies and followers\' preferred strategies. Specifically, we found that transformational leadership primarily encourages promotion-focused strategies and, accordingly, creates a regulatory fit for promotion-focused followers. In contrast, transactional leadership primarily encourages prevention-focused strategies, creating a regulatory fit for prevention-focused followers. As a consequence of this regulatory fit, leadership is perceived as more effective and predictive of enhanced effort. By integrating literature on self-regulation with insights from leadership research, this research contributes to a deeper understanding of the leadership process and of interpersonal influences on self-regulatory experiences.
Publication Title: European Journal of Social Psychology, Vol. 44(6)
Pub Year: 2014
Pages: 643 – 656
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2027
Keywords: influence, transformational leadership

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